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Theological and Political Roots of Georgia Salzburgers

by The Rev. Frank L. Perry, Jr., Ed.D., President


FRENCH CATHOLIC DISSENT. In the 12th Century, lay persons in France grew restless due to an alleged indifference by Roman Catholic clergy to their personal needs and problems. Bishops appeared as remote administrators, while priests served the needs of the church and the privileged rather than the oppressed masses of people.

PETER VALDES. Peter Valdes, a prosperous merchant layman, was so inspired to live and preach the literal teachings of Jesus and the 10 Commandments that about 1175 he sold his property and preached in the language of the common people, French, instead of Latin, and administered the sacraments, which was contrary to the rule of Roman Catholic canon law. Valdes excluded all customs not found in the Bible, such as penance, prayers to Saints, image worship, oath-taking and taking-life. He taught that the Holy Spirit could inspire common people as well as inspire priests with God's truth, therefore lay people had the same spiritual authority as priests to administer the sacraments and to preach. Valdes became a lay minister teaching, hearing confessions, and alleviating human misery among the poor of France. Waldensians were declared heretics by the Pope in 1184.(1) Waldensian ministry spread through Valdes' disciples to the poor, who increasingly rejected Catholic church authority in many southern towns in France.

PAPAL INQUISITION. A papal Inquisition was organized in 1233 to strengthen the power of the church against such dissenters and heretics, declaring "(Catholics) shall exterminate heretics and possess their lands."(2)After persecution in France, Peter Valdes fled South with his disciples into the mountains of Italy where he was known as Peter Waldo. Many centuries later some Waldensians emigrated to America and settled at Valdez, North Carolina.(3)

ACQUINAS LIGHTS A FIRE. The spark igniting the flames of violent religious persecution across Europe was struck by Dr. Thomas Acquinas, (1225-1274), a Roman Catholic professor of theology, who wrote the Catholic doctrine that heresy was a sin which could not be tolerated. Truth could never tolerate error. He taught that sinners (all dissenters and non-Catholics) deserved excommunication from the sacraments and from the one true church and, furthermore, if they would not return to Catholicism, they should be cut off from the world by death.(4)

Acquinas gave the Pope theological justification and a rationale for persecuting non-Catholics. In 1314 Jacques DeMolay, the French Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was burned at the stake by the Catholic King Philip of France for refusing to divulge the names of Masons.

JOHN WYCLIFFE. John Wycliffe b. 1324, Lutterworth Parish, England, an English Roman Catholic theologian and professor at the University of Oxford, a free thinker, taught that the supreme authority in the Christian church was the Holy Scripture, the Word of God, and not the Pope or his Council. He was a protege of John of Gaunt and sent out "poor preachers" to English villages ministering to the needs of people and teaching this doctrine through sermons and tracts.(5) Wycliffe's translation of the Bible from Latin into English made it available to all persons who could read English, influencing grammar and prose writing.

Wycliffe emphasized two points: (1) Grace or forgiveness may be secured "directly" from God without confession to priests. (2) The Bible is the final authority in religion, not the Pope, his bishops or councils. Among Wycliffe's teachings and writings were the following:

7. If a man be duly penitent, any outward confession is superfluous and useless.

14. Any deacon or priest may preach the word of God apart from the authority of the Apostolic See or a Catholic bishop.

17. The people can at their own will correct sinful lords.

18. Tithes are mere alms, and parishioners can withdraw them at their will because of the misdeeds of their curates.

35. The Pope is not the next and immediate vicar of Christ and the Apostles.

42. It is fatuous to believe in the indulgences (forgiveness of sin granted in payment for money of the Pope and the bishops.(6)

GERHARD GROOT. Gerhard Groot (the Great) was a Netherlands leader of the reformed faith in the 1300s, University scholar and founder of "Brethren of the Common Life," whose member Thomas a Kempis wrote the devotional book Imitation of Christ. There were houses of "The Sisters of the Common Life." The Brothers insisted upon using scriptures, booklets and prayers in the Dutch language so common people could read.

JAN HUS. Jan Hus (Czech, Huss), b. 1372, Roman Catholic priest and Rector, University of Prague, Bohemia (present Czech), a brilliant and devout preacher, read the writings of Wycliffe, which some of his students had brought back from England, and agreed with Wycliffe on many points of theology.

Hus denounced claims of the Pope (1) that he was Vicar of Christ on earth; (2) that his authority was above scripture simply because the church existed before scripture and created scripture; (3) that Church offices (bishop, etc.,) could be obtained by purchase (simony), instead of by piety and virtue.

Hus enjoyed the protection of the Bohemian King Wenzel, father-in-law of the English King Richard II, and Wenzel's Queen Anne. Hus was granted a hearing among bishops and other officials at the Catholic council of Constance (now Germany) in October 1414 and was promised safe conduct. However, he was betrayed by Catholics, arrested, imprisoned in a Dominican monastery, tried and condemned as a heretic, along with John Wycliffe (in absentia).(7)

Hus was burned at the stake July 6, 1415, by order of the Roman Catholic Council of Constance. Hus reportedly remarked, You, this day burn a goose, but a hundred years hence a swan will arise, whom you will not be able to roast or boil.(8) [Ed: Hus' name sounded like the hiss of a goose.](9) His ashes were thrown into the Rhine River. Hus and Wycliffe, later, were called "morning stars of the Reformation", likened to the planets Venus and Mercury which often herald the dawn of a new day.(10)

In 1515 the Roman Catholic Pope Julius II persuaded the Consistory of Cardinals to tear down the wooden building in Rome sheltering the supposed remains of the Apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, erected during the reign of the Emperor Constantine in A. D. 325 and repaired over the centuries. The Pope wanted to build a more permanent domed and marbled St. Peter's Basilica as a fitting memorial. When Pope Julius II died, Pope Leo X continued the expensive project, begging rulers and parishioners to give generously to protect "the moldering bones of the Apostles from exposure to the rain and sun." Pope Leo borrowed money from the German banking monopoly, then issued "indulgences" for forgiveness of sins to persons who bought them. He sold church offices as Bishop, etc., for fees to wealthy men of the region. These new Bishops were authorized to send traveling monks through villages to sell "indulgences" for money, which was forwarded to the Bishop and then to the Pope.(11)

On October 31, 1517, All Hallow's Eve, Dr. Martin Luther, Augustinian monk and senior priest at Castle Church, Wittenburg, Germany, professor of theology at the U. of Wittenburg and director of eleven monasteries, tacked a list of 95 religious abuses to be read by worshipers the next day, All Saints Day. He expected the topics to be debated by Catholic scholars with an effort to reform the Catholic church. Luther's basic teaching was personal salvation sola fide, by faith alone, without the church, its priests, bishops or popes. However, the Pope had Luther tried and excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church. On the other hand, several princes and thousands of tradesmen and peasants followed his teachings and were known as Lutherans. Luther considered Jan Hus' prophecy in 1415 of a swan to arise in 100 years to apply to himself. Nearly all citizens of Salzburg, the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, accepted his beliefs in reforming the Catholic Church.

In 1555 the Diet of Augsburg issued a new law known as the Peace of Augsburg as a compromise among quarreling Catholic and Protestant German princes and an effort to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation. Each sovereign, Roman Catholic, Lutheran or Calvinist, was permitted to decide the religion of his subjects: Cuius regio, eius religio, "Whose is the region, his is the religion."(12)

In 1675 Philipp Jacob Spener, senior pastor, Frankfurt am Main ministerium (Seminary), deeply influenced by Luther's writings, wrote a preface, Pia desideria (Pious desires), to the postills of Johann Arndt. Spener wanted (1) Biblically expository sermons, (2) Experiential sermons on repentance of sin and evidence of new spiritual birth, (3) Small classes for new believers to share and edify each other, and (4) Pastoral education focused less on theological debate and more on sensitized caring to develop devout and moral parishioners.(13)

Spener emphasized more pious clergy and parishioners, known as Pietism, resulting in (1) Pastors having to justify a "call of God" at ordination, rather than monetary or political ambition, (2) Preaching for conversion and behavior change, not intellectual interest, (3) congregational singing to express heartfelt emotions of repentance and enthusiasm for salvation, (4) Prayer less perfunctorily ritualistic and more sensitive to immediate needs and joys, (5) Worship in the family in addition to the church, (6) Daily personal Bible and devotional book reading, (7) Frequent Bible class discussions, (8) Motivation for missions to share the Gospel of Christ's redeeming love with the nonChristian world population, (9) Establishing schools, colleges, seminaries, hospitals and orphanages.(14)

August Hermann Francke, Spener's protégé, furthered Pietism at the new University of Halle.

Lutherans took the "salt oath," dipping one finger into a dish of salt or touching a salt block, then placing that finger on their tongue, while raising the other hand to God as Witness of loyalty to God's Word, identifying with Jesus' saying, You are the salt of the earth.(15)

Saltzburg. Salzburg (Salt-city) was an independent city-state founded on the Salzach River in Europe named for a large salt mine discovered by the Celts and, later, the Romans. The additional discoveries of silver, gold, iron, and other ores furthered settlement and prosperity. In 1816 Salzburg was given to Austria.

In 1727 Roman Catholic Count Leopold Anton Eleutherius von Firmian bought the office of Archbishop of Salzburg from the Pope for $75,000.00 (today's exchange) and upon the legal basis of the Peace of Augsburg tried to purify Salzburg of non-Catholic teachings. On October 31, 1731, he signed the Emigrationspatent or Edict of Expulsion for all persons who refused to accept the Roman Catholic faith(16) and published the document on November 11, the anniversary of Luther's baptism. However, Archbishop Firmian was shocked when more than 20,000 citizens were listed as professing Protestant beliefs, but he forced them into exile.

Tradesmen and miners were given only 8 days to dispose of goods. Land owners were given 3 months to sell and leave. All cattle, sheep, land, houses and furniture dumped on the market caused prices to plummet. Catholics bought Protestant goods and lands cheaply. All Protestant Bibles, books and hymnals were burned.

The first Lutheran Salzburgers left, 1731, in a November snowstorm, seeking shelter in Protestant cities in Germany and Prussia. The Protestant King of Prussia, Frederick Wilhelm I of East Prussia and Lithuania, accepted 12,000 Salzburger emigrants.

General James Edward Oglethorpe, wealthy young British Protestant Member of Parliament and philanthropist, was appointed in 1732 to head the new Colony of Georgia and settled there in 1733. Lutheran King George II of England (of German Lutheran extraction) offered aid through the Trustees for the Colony of Georgia to all Salzburgers willing to settle in the new Colony.(17)Support came from Protestants in Augsburg, Germany, and from The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, S. P. C. K., in London. A group of Lutheran Salzburgers and Germans agreed to go to Georgia, organized their congregation at St. Ann's Lutheran Church in Augsburg, Germany, in 1733, then traveled down the Rhine River to Rotterdam, Holland, where they were met by Lutheran pastors, Johann Martin Boltzius, age 31, and Israel Christian Gronau, age 27, who sailed with them to Dover, England, then to Georgia.

On March 3, 1734, the Georgia Salzburger pastors read texts praising God for deliverance after a severe storm at sea nearing the end of their Atlantic voyage on the ship Purysburg. Among these texts was I Samuel 7:12. Samuel placed a stone where God had saved his people from their enemy and named it Eben-Ezer, stone of help.(18)

On March 11-12, 1734, the ship grounded on a sand bar off the coast of Georgia, increasing anxiety of shipwreck. Finally, on March 12, 1734, the first Salzburger immigrants landed safely at Savannah. Later, they were assigned land 25 miles north of Savannah by Gen. Oglethorpe in a swamp on a creek bordering Uchee Indians. The pastors chose the name Eben Ezer, stone of help, or monument to God's protection, and recommended the name to General Oglethorpe, who named the town, its bordering creek, and the Parish, Ebenezer.(19)

Half of the settlers died the first year of disease and Pastor Boltzius asked permission to settle on a high bluff of red clay bordering the Savannah River. Oglethorpe wanted, first, only English settlers on the river, but, later, granted permission and Pastor Boltzius led his flock to the new location of Ebenezer. The two locations are labeled on some maps as Old Ebenezer and New Ebenezer. Pastor Boltzius referred, unofficially, to Old Ebenezer, thus distinguishing their locations.(20) He and Gen. Oglethorpe feared that news of a settlement failure at the old site might cut off funds from both London and Augsburg so they called the new site by the same name, Ebenezer.

Financial support came from Lutheran friends in Germany, from The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in England and from the Trustees of the Georgia Colony.

The Georgia Salzburgers built several firsts in Georgia: first church building, first grist mill, first rice mill, first saw mill, first silk filature and first orphanage. The Rev. George Whitefield, minister of the Church of England, visited Ebenezer in 1737 to study their orphanage before founding Bethesda Orphanage in 1740 near Savannah.

In 1740 the Rev. George Whitefield presented a small bronze bell cast in England to Jerusalem Lutheran Church. Again, in 1752, he donated a larger bell to the church. They were rung for births, deaths, community dangers and meetings. The oldest bells in Georgia are still rung every Sunday morning for worship, at semi-annual meetings of The Georgia Salzburger Society and for special events.

The Rev. Heinrich Melchior Muhlenburg visited, first, Ebenezer in 1742 before traveling to serve Lutheran communities in Pennsylvania. The Rev. John Wesley met with the Rev. Boltzius in Savannah before writing many Methodist hymns influenced by German hymns. Germans continued to settle Ebenezer until 1752.

In 1754 Ebenezer Parish was renamed St. Matthew's Parish.(21)

The brick Jerusalem Lutheran Church was begun in 1767 and completed in 1769. Finger impressions may be seen in several bricks, which were molded from local clay.

In 1774 the Rev. Muhlenburg was requested by Court Chaplain Fredrich Michael Ziegenhagen, London, and the Rev. Samuel Urlsperger, Augsburg, Germany, to return to Ebenezer from Pennsylvania, to settle a serious congregational dispute originating between pastors, the Rev. Christoph Friedrich Triebner and the Rev. Christian Rabenhorst.(22)

The state of Georgia was founded in 1776 and Effingham County was created in 1777 from St. Matthew and St. Philip parishes. The county was named for English Earl and Member of Parliament, Lord Effingham, who championed the cause of American rights and refused to fight the colonists.

BRITISH CAPTURE EBENEZER. On December 29, 1778, the British captured Savannah in the American Revolution. Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell, 71st Rgmnt., Highlanders, head quartered at Ebenezer. The Salzburger's sympathies had divided between Loyalists and Patriots. Gen. Campbell ordered Patriot cottages plundered, then targeted for cannon practice. British used the brick-floored church, first, for storage, then a hospital, and finally, as England was losing the war, in contempt, as a stable for their horses. Its pews were burned along with hymnals, Bibles, the library and copies of daily journals of its pastors. A soldier fired a round through the swan weathervane on the church steeple leaving a hole.

In the Spring of 1781, Georgia's first elected Governor, John Adam Treutlen, reared at Ebenezer, but living then in S. C., was a Patriot and murdered by a gang of Tories.

AMERICANS RETAKE EBENEZER. In 1782 American Gen. Anthony Wayne, led Continental soldiers to drive the British from Ebenezer. Church members cleaned up the building, resumed worship and the Georgia Legislature met in the church, naming Ebenezer the Capital of Georgia for two weeks.

February 18, 1796, Ebenezer was named Effingham County Seat, until 1799 when Springfield was named.

Ebenezer became a dead town when most residents sought employment and more fertile land in other locations. However, a group of descendants continue worship in the brick church to this day.

UNITED STATES TROOPS OCCUPY EBENEZER. In 1864 Ebenezer was occupied by federal troops under General Sherman on his march from Atlanta to Savannah. Troops used the church's picket fence and hymnals for campfires.

EARTHQUAKE DAMAGES EBENEZER CHURCH. In 1886 an earthquake, centered beneath Charleston, S. C., reverberated below Effingham County and damaged the church building. A steel strap was bolted around the top of the 21 inch thick brick walls to hold them together and cracks in mortar were repaired.

THE GEORGIA SALZBURGER SOCIETY IS FOUNDED. Dr. Richard L. Gnann, dentist in Savannah, invited a few Salzburger descendants to meet at the church, September 2, 1925, to organize The Georgia Salzburger Society. Eighteen persons attended. On December 9, 1925, a Constitution and By-Laws were adopted and officers and directors elected. The first annual meeting of The Georgia Salzburger Society was held at Jerusalem Lutheran Church, Ebenezer, Effingham County, Georgia, on March 12, 1926, the 192nd Anniversary of the Landing, March 12, 1734, of the first Salzburger settlers.

GENEALOGY OF GEORGIA SALZBURGERS PUBLISHED. In 1955 Mrs. Pearl Rahn Gnann traveled Effingham County, gathering genealogical data on descendants of early Georgia Salzburgers, publishing in 1956 Georgia Salzburgers and Allied Families. It was updated in 1970 and in 1976 by her daughter, Mrs. Charles A. LeBey, and is being updated to be published in at least 4 volumes.

FIRST HISTORY OF GEORGIA SALZBURGERS PUBLISHED. Dr. Carl Mauelshagen, born in Betzdorf, Germany, educated at Concordia Teachers College, U. Tennessee and U. Minnesota, Professor Emeritus, History Department, Georgia State College (now Georgia State University), Atlanta, researched the history of the Georgia Salzburgers at the University of Georgia, Athens, University of Chicago, Emory University, Atlanta, University of Salzburg, University of Munich, University of Vienna, state archives of Bavaria, Munich and Austria and city archives of Augsburg and St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, Germany. He published in 1962 his research on Salzburg beginning with its ancient names of Civitas Clavdia, Juvavum and Helfenburg.(23)

FIRST JOURNALS OF GEORGIA SALZBURGER PASTORS PUBLISHED In 1968 the Wormsloe Foundation, Savannah, published an English translation of two volumes of Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America, written by the pastors of Georgia Salzburgers and discovered in the Archives of the Francke Institute, University of Halle, Germany. A total of 18 volumes of daily journals have been published in English. However, over 3,000 pages of German text in the Georgia division remain to be translated and published as soon as funds can be found.

GEORGIA SALZBURGER MUSEUM BUILT. In 1971 Restoration Architect John C. LeBey, Savannah, and brother-in-law of Mrs. Charles A. LeBey, "Amy," built a two-story brick museum for the Society on the site of the original orphan house and dedicated it to his deceased wife, Louise Gnann LeBey.

In 1974 Ebenezer and Jerusalem Lutheran Church were listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

GEORGIA SALZBURGER MONUMENT AND PARK DEDICATED. In 1984 Albert Winter, from Salzburg, Austria, visited Savannah and Ebenezer for the 250th Anniversary Celebration of the Landing on October 12, 1734. He observed, You have monuments to Englishmen and an Indian, but none to Austrians or Germans. Upon returning to Salzburg, he lobbied officials of the Austrian State of Salzburg and other individuals for a monument to the Georgia Salzburgers. Finally, Dr. Hans Katschthaler, Governor of Salzburg, commissioned Anton Thuswaldner, Kaprun, Austria, to sculpture a monument, which was brought to Savannah and dedicated on Labor Day 1994 in a park on Bay Street near the Lincoln street ramp as a Monument of Reconciliation. John W. Gnann, chairman of the monument committee of The Georgia Salzburger Society, worked with Savannah officials for the delivery and location of the monument.

OLD PARSONAGE AND WELCOME CENTER OPENED. In 1995, a parsonage built in 1840 for a Lutheran pastor of Jerusalem Lutheran Church, was donated by Mrs. Evelyn Zeigler with $3,000.00 toward relation. It was moved to the settlement and is being renovated and restored for a Society office, conference room, and welcome center by the Old Parsonage committee, Calvin Seckinger, chairman.

On July 9, 1996, through continued efforts of John W. Gnann and the monument committee, the City of Savannah dedicated the small parcel of ground in which the monument rests, naming it, officially, Salzburger Park. The monument committee commissioned a Historical Marker to explain the Salzburger emigration.

Books for Reference:

Angelika Marsch, Die Salzburger Emigration In Bildern. Over 400 pictures, however the text is German. It may be ordered from B. H. Blackwell, Ltd., EXTRA; 50 Broad Street, Oxford OX1 3BQ England.

George Fenwick Jones, The Salzburger Saga. (Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1984; reprint, Camden, ME: Picton Press).

G. F. Jones, The Georgia Dutch: From the Rhine and Danube to the Savannah, 1733-1783), (Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press, 1992).

G. F. Jones & Sheryl Exley, Ebenezer Record Book 1754-1781, (Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1991).

Carl Maulshagen, Salzburg Lutheran Expulsion and Its Impact, (New York: Vantage Press, 1962; reprint, Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1994).

Eighteen volumes of Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America, have been edited in English variously by George Fenwick Jones and/or Renate Wilson, et al. (Camden, ME: Picton Press).

A summary book of Pietist beliefs is edited by Peter Erb, Pietists Selected Writings, (New York: Paulist Press, 1983, paper). Pietism is the foundation of contemporary Protestant beliefs of many denominations.

Document Collections

Andover-Harvard Theological Library
Harvard Divinity School
43 Francis Avenue
Cambridge,MA 02138
Dr. Timothy Driscoll, Curator

1. M. Deansley, A History of the Medieval Church 590-1500, (London: Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1951), 227.

2. Henry Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford U. Press, 1947), 189.

3. New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 7, (New York, 1974), 621-2., hereafter abbr. NEB.

4. Thomas Acquinas, The Summa Theologica, Vol. II, (Chicago: Ency. Brit., 1971), 440, Part II,Q.11. Art. 3.

5. G. Elmore Reaman, The Trail of the Huguenots in Europe, the United States, South Africa and Canada, (Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., reprint 1993), 23.

6. Bettenson, op. cit., 245-248.

7. Micropaedia, Vol. V, NEB,(Chicago, 1974), 223.

8. W. B. Forbush, Fox's Book of Martyrs, (Chicago: The John C. Winston Co., 1925), 140-3; Heiko A. Oberman, Luther: Man between God and the Devil, (New York: Image Books, Doubleday, 1992), 55.

9. Ibid., 140-3., abbr. FBM.

10. W. R. Cannon, History of Christianity in the Middle Ages, (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1960), 310.

11. New Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 8, (N. Y.: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1967), 1086-87; Roland H. Bainton, Here I Stand, (N. Y.: New American Library, A Mentor Book, 1955), 60f.

12. Oberman, op. cit., 10.

13. Peter C. Erb, ed. Pietists Selected Writings, The Classics of Western Spirituality, (N. Y.: Paulist Press, 1983), xiii.

14. Ibid., ix-x.

15. George Fenwick Jones, The Salzburger Saga, (Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1984), 6.

16. An Account of the Sufferings of the Persecuted Protestants in the Archbishoprick of Saltzburg, etc., From the DeRenne Collection (DER 1732.A2), Hargrett Library Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries, Athens, GA.

17. Robert G. McPherson, ed. The Journal of The Earl of Egmont, Abstract of the Trustees Proceedings for Establishing the Colony of Georgia 1732-1738, (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1962), 4.

18. S. P. Tregelles, Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 1950), 8.

19. George Fenwick Jones, ed., Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants Who Settled in America . . ., Vol. I, 1733-34, (Athens, GA: UGA Press, 1968), 19, 54, 58-59, 67; G. F. Jones, Henry Newman's Salzburger Letterbooks (1732-1735), (Athens, GA: The UGA Press, 1966), 459-460; Carl Maulshagen, Salzburg Lutheran Expulsion and Its Impact, (New York: Vantage Press, 1962; reprint, Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1994), 137; Mary Bondurant Warren and Jack Moreland Jones, Georgia Governor and Council Journals 1753-1760, (Danielsville, GA: Heritage press, 1991), vii.

20. Detailed Reports . . ., Vol., III, 1736.

21. Warren, op. Cit.

22. Theodore G. Tappert and John W. Doberstein, Trans. The Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenburg, Vol. II, (Camden, ME: Picton Press, 1982), 556-686.

23. Carl Mauelshagen, Salzburg Lutheran Expulsion and Its Impact, (New York: Vantage Press, 1962); reprint, Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1994).