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Modern European History Two Hour Exam Questions

1.Crane Brinton in his book The Anatomy of Revolution considers the seizure of power by radicals from the moderates as necessary for the carrying through of a revolution. Who were the radicals and how successful were they in gaining control of events in the English Revolution of the 17th century, the French Revolution of the 18th century, the European revolutions of 1848, and the Russian Revolution of the 20th century?

2.What reasons seem to you to best explain why the industrial revolution began in England in the 18th century, spread to France and Belgium in the first half of the 19th century, and made a profound impression on Russia only in the 20th century?

3.What is the "Balance of Power," its origins, its aims, and achievements? Is it necessary?

4.To what extent do economic and social conditions explain why England's revolution against absolute monarchy came in the 17th century, France's in the 18th century, and Russia's early in the 20th century?

5.How important is religion in explaining the intellectual, economic, and political developments of European history since 1500?

6. One of the chief problems facing mankind today is how to regulate relations among sovereign states in such a manner as to avoid war. Discuss the success or failure of the various of efforts to create new organs of international scope and authority from the 17th century to the present. You may draw upon the work of the Duc de Sully, Hugo Grotius, Castlereagh, and the founders of the European Union.